Avenge; Avenger

a-venj ́ a-venj ́ẽr: Avenge.—The general idea connected with this word is that of inflicting punishment upon the wrongdoer. Since emphasis may be placed upon the deed itself, the wrongdoer, or the injured party, the verb is found an intransitive (only Leviticus 19:18; see below), transitive (2 Samuel 4:8 et al.); and also active (Deuteronomy 32:43), passive (Jeremiah 5:9) and reflexive (Esther 8:13). In 1 Samuel 25:26 avenge is translated from ישע, yāsha', “to save” (Revised Version margin, “thine own hand saving thee”), in Hosea 1:4 from פקד, pāḳadh, “to visit,” and in 2 Samuel 18:19 from שׁפט, shāphaṭ, “to judge,” but the usual Hebrew word is נקם, nāḳam, or derivatives, “to avenge.” The translation in the Revised Version differs in some places from King James Version: Numbers 31:3 (Revised Version “execute Yahweh’s vengeance”; compare 2 Samuel 22:48; Psalms 18:47; Leviticus 26:25); Leviticus 19:18 (Revised Version “take vengeance”); Judges 5:2 (Revised Version “for that the leaders took the lead in Israel” from פרע, pāra‛, “to be free, to lead”). In the New Testament avenge is translated from the Greek ἐκδικέω, ekdikéō, “to do justice,” “to protect” (Luke 18:3 et al.) and the King James Version Revelation 18:20, κρίνω, krínō, “to judge” (Revised Version “God hath judged your judgment”).

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Author: International Std. Bible Encyclopedia

Keywords: Avenge, Avenger, Avenger of blood, Vengeance, Revenge

Bible reference(s): 1 Samuel 25:26, 1 Thessalonians 4:6, 2 Samuel 18:19, 2 Samuel 22:48, 2 Samuel 4:8, Deuteronomy 32:43, Esther 8:13, Hosea 1:4, Jeremiah 5:9, Judges 5:2, Leviticus 19:18, Leviticus 26:25, Luke 18:3, Numbers 31:3, Numbers 35:12, Psalms 18:47, Psalms 8:2, Revelation 18:20

Source: James Orr (editor), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 5 volume set.

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